UMAR ABD AZIZ is a person I truly admire. A leader, a sufi, a truly beauty that emerged when the world is really in need of such a person. A person who wish no worldly power and wealth. A person whose life devoted to Allah's Way.

Al Fatihah to his blessed soul.


 

I

 

Umar ibn Abdil Aziz


Al Jumuah Rajab 1416

Umar ibn Abdul Aziz was the revivalist of the first century after Hijrah. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was the first person to declare him as such, and there was no disagreement among the Muslim scholars on this matter.

During the rule of Banu Umayyah, the succession of power was hereditary, and was thus confined in the Banu Umayyah family, until Sulayman took power. Upon appointing his successor, Sulayman sought the advice of the sons of the Prophetís companions. They advised him to choose Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz. When Umar was chosen, the people carried him over their shoulders to the pulpit. He thanked Allah and said: "O people! This matter has befallen on me without my knowledge, nor have I asked for it, nor have I been consulted about it, and I am now resigning, so choose a Khalifah among yourselves." The people shouted with one voice: "We have chosen you O Umar, and have accepted you as our Khalifah!"

That was Umarís first act of revival: to change the succession of power from being hereditary to become subject to consultation, where the Muslims choose their ruler. Umar earnestly started the revival movement. He abolished the luxuries that the rulers before him had for their use, and all the privileges enjoyed by the rulerís family and relatives. He asked his wife to choose between staying with him or keeping the wealth her father gave her. She chose to stay with him, and took her jewelry to the state treasury.

Next, he made sweeping changes in the government. He appointed jurist scholars known for their righteousness and piety, and dismissed the corrupt ones. He abolished taxes and distributed the wealth with justice. He organized the collection and distribution of Zakat so well that there was a time when no one came to ask for it, and the Zakat distributors could not find anybody to take it.

Then he worked toward the purification of the Muslimsí souls and of the social and moral environment. For this reason, he encouraged the scholars to spread the true Islamic knowledge among the Muslims, and to call the disbelievers to Islam. He fought the deviations and innovations inherited from those before him. He gave back to the people of the book the rights that the Qurían prescribed. He appointed scholars to record by writing the hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, and the quotations of his companions, radhiallahu `anhum. It was in fact the first organized movement to record the hadith.

These reforms had a deep impact on the Muslim ummah and that it why Umar ibn Abdul Aziz deserves to be called the revivalist of the first century.

 

Admonitions from `Umar ibn `Abdil Azeez


From At-Tabaree's History

According to Abdallaah bin Bakr bin Habeeb al-Sahmee: We were told by a man in the mosque of al-Junaabidh that `Umar bin `Abd al-`Azeez delivered a sermon to the people in Khunaasirah in which he said:

O people, you were not created in vain, nor will you be left to yourselves [See 75:36]. Rather, you will return to a place in whichAllaah will descend in order to judge among you and distinguish between you. Destitute and lost are those who forsake the all- encompassing mercy of Allaah, and they will be excluded from Paradise, the borders of which are as wide as the heavens and the earth. Don't you know that protection, tomorrow, will be limited to those who feared Allaah [today], and to those who sold something ephemeral for something permanent, something small for something great, and fear for protection? Don't you realize that you are the descendants of those who have perished, that those who remain will take their place after you, and that this will continue until you are all returned to Allaah? Every day you dispatch to Allaah, at all times of the day, someone who has died, his term having come to an end. You bury him in a crack in the earth and then leave him without a pillow or a bed. He has parted from his loved ones, severed his connections with the living, and taken up residence in the earth, whereupon he comes face to face with the accounting. He is mortgaged to his deeds: He needs his accomplishments, but not the material things he left on earth.

Therefore, fear Allaah before death descends and its appointed times expire. I swear by Allaah that I say those words to you knowing that I myself have committed more sins than any of you; I therefore ask Allaah for forgiveness and I repent. Whenever we learn that one of you needs something, I try to satisfy his need to the extent that I am able. Whenever I can provide satisfaction to one of you out of my possessions, I seek to treat him as my equal and my relative, so that my life and his life are of equal value. I swear by Allaah that had I wanted something else, namely, affluence, then it would have been easy for me to utter the word, aware as I am of the means for obtaining this. But Allaah has issued in an eloquent Book and a just example (sunnah) by means of which He guides us to obedience and proscribes disobedience.

He lifted up the edge of his robe and began to cry and sob, causing the people around him to break into tears. Then he stepped down. That was the last sermon he gave before he died, may Allaah have mercy on him.

/For variant versions of this sermon, see Ibn `Abd al-Hakam, Seerah 43-45, 132-33; Ibn Katheer, Bidaayah, IX, 199; This translation was taken from The History of al-Tabaree, Vol XXIV, by D.S.Powers/

In the same book, it is also related that,

According to `Abdallaah - his father - al-Fudayl - `Abdallaah: I was told that `Umar bin `Abd al-Azeez wrote to the Syrian army as follows:

"As-salaamu `alaikum wa rahmatullaah. Now then, whoever contemplates death frequently speaks little, while he who knows that death is certain is satisfied with a little. Farewell."

According to Mansoor bin Muzaahim - Shu`ayb, that is, Ibn Safwaan - Ibn `Abd al-Hameed: `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Azeez said:

He who gives sincere advice to his brother in matters of religion and looks out for the well being of the latter's daily affairs has fulfilled his brotherly obligation and carried out the duty that was incumbent upon him. Fear Allaah. Accept these words, for they are offered as sincere advice to you with regard to your religion; and cling fast to them, for they constitute a warning that will save you in the afterlife. The sustenance has been apportioned; therefore, let no believer exceed what has been apportioned to him, and be united in seeking the good. In contentment there is abundance, substinence, and sufficiency. The term of this life is in your necks, and Jahannam lies before you. What you see will pass away, what has been is as if it never was, and all will soon be dead. You have seen the stages of the dying man, both when he is in the agony of death, and then after his demise when he has tasted death and the people all around him are saying, "He has passed away, May Allaah have mercy on his soul." You have witnessed the hasty manner in which he is removed, and the division of his estate, when his face is lost, his memory forgotten, and his doorway forsaken, as if he had not mixed with those who keep their word, nor inhabited the lands. Therefore, beware the horror of a day on which not so much as the weight of an ant on the scale will be despised.

According to `Abd al-Rahmaan bin Mahdee - Sufyaan: `Umar bin `Abd al-`Azeez said:

He who acts without knowledge causes more corruption than good, and he who does not consider his speech to be part of his actions sins repeatedly. Satisfaction is scarce, and the true believer should rely on patience. Allaah never bestowed a blessing upon one of His servants and then took it away from him, giving him patience in return for that which was taken away, except that the replacement was better than what was taken away from him." Then he recited the following verse: "Surely the patient will be paid their wages in full without reckoning." [39:10]

 


II

Khalifah Umar bin Abdul Aziz

Khalifah Yang Agung

 

Biodata Ringkas

 

Nama                  : Abu Jaafar Umar bin Abdul Aziz bin Marwan bin Hakam
Nama Ibu            : Laila binti 'Asim bin Umar bin Al-Khatab
T/Lahir                : 61H
Umur                  : 39 tahun
Tarikh M/Dunia    : 101H
Jawatan              : Khalifah Ke 6 Bani Umaiyyah
Tarikh Lantikan    : Safar 99H @ 717M
Lama Berkhidmat : 2 tahun 5 bulan

 

Pendidikan

Beliau telah menghafaz al-Quran sejak masih kecil lagi. Merantau ke Madinah untuk menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Beliau telah berguru dengan beberapa tokoh terkemuka spt Imam Malik b. Anas, Urwah b. Zubair, Abdullah b. Jaafar, Yusuf b. Abdullah dan sebagainya. Kemudian beliau melanjutkan pelajaran dengan beberapa tokoh terkenal di Mesir.

Beliau telah dipanggil balik ke Damsyik oleh Khalifah Abdul Malik b. Marwan apabila bapanya meninggal dunia dan dikahwinkan dengan puteri Khalifah, Fatimah bte Abdul Malik (sepupunya)

 

Sifat-Sifat Peribadi

Beliau mempunyai keperibadian yang tinggi, disukai ramai dan warak yang diwarisi dari datuknya Saidina Umar b Al-Khatab. Baginda amat berhati-hati dengan harta terutamanya yang melibatkan harta rakyat. Sesungguhnya kisah Khalifah   Umar bin Abdul Aziz yang menyediakan dua lilin di rumahnya, satu untuk kegunaan urusan negara dan satu lagi untuk kegunaan keluarga sendiri tentunya telah diketahui umum dan tidak perlu diulang-ulang.

Sebagai seorang yang zuhud, kehidupannya semasa menjadi Gabenor Madinah dan Khalifah adalah sama seperti kehdupannya semasa menjadi rakyat biasa. Harta yang ada termasuk barang perhiasan isterinya diserahkan kepada Baitulmal dan segala perbelanjaan negara berdasarkan konsep jimat-cermat dan berhati-hati atas alasan ia adalah harta rakyat. Ini terbukti apabila beliau dengan tegasnya menegur dan memecat pegawai yang boros dan segala bentuk  jamuan negara tidak dibenarkan menggunakan harta kerajaan.

Pada suatu hari beliau berkhutbah yang mana antara isinya adalah spt berikut ;

"Setiap orang yang musafir mesti memperlengkapi bekalannya. Siapkanlah taqwa dalam perjalanan kamu dari dunia menuju akhirat. Pastikan dirimu sama ada mendapat pahala atau siksa, senang atau susah."

"Jangan biarkan masa berlalu sehingga hatimu menjadi keras dan musuh sempat mengoda. Sebaik-baiknya saudara menganggap bahawa hidup pada petang hari tidak akan sampai ke pagi hari dan hidup pada pagi  hari tidak akan sampai ke   petang hari. Memang tidak jarang terjadi kematian ditengah-tengahnya"

"Saudara-saudara dapat menyaksikan sendiri bahawa ramai orang yang tertipu dengan dunia, padahal orang yang layak bergembira tidak lain kecuali orang yang selamat daripada siksaan Allah SWT dan orang yang lepas dari tragedi hari qiamat."

"Sementara orang yang tidak mahu mengubati yang sudah luka, kemudian datang lagi penyakit lain, bagaimana mungkin mahu bergembira ? Saya berlindung kepada Allah SWT daripada perbuatan yang tidak aku pegangi dan amalkan sendiri. Seandainya begitu, alangkah rugi dan tercelanya aku. Dan jelaslah tempatku nanti pada hari yang jelas kelihatan siapa yang kaya dan siapa yang miskin".

"Di sana nanti akan diadakan timbangan amal serta manusia akan diserahi tanggungjawab yang berat. Seandainya tugas itu dipikul oleh binatang-binatang nescaya ia akan hancur, jika dipikul oleh gunung nescaya ia akan runtuh, kalau dipikul oleh bumi nescaya bumi akan retak. Saudara-saudara belum tahu bahawa tiada tempat di antara Syurga dan Neraka ? Kamu akan memasuki salah satu daripadanya."

"Ada seorang lelaki yang mengirim surat kepada rakannya yang isinya : "Sesungguhnya dunia ini adalah tempat bermimpi dan akhirat barulah terjaga" Jarak pemisah antara keduanya adalah mati. Jadi, kita sekarang sedang bermimpi yang panjang"

Terdapat banyak riwayat dan athar para sahabat yang menceritakan tentang keluruhan budinya. Di antaranya ialah :

        1) At-Tirmizi meriwayatkan bahawa Umar Al-Khatab telah berkata : "Dari anakku (zuriatku)  akan lahir seorang lelaki yang menyerupainya dari segi keberaniannya dan akan memenuhkan dunia dengan keadilan"

        2) Dari Zaid bin Aslam bahawa Anas bin Malik  telah berkata : "Aku  tidak pernah menjadi makmum di belakang imam selepas wafatnya Rasulullah SAW yang mana solat imam tersebut menyamai solat Rasulullah SAW melainkan daripada Umar bin Abdul  Aziz dan beliau pada masa itu adalah Gabenor Madinah"

        3) Al-Walid bin Muslim menceritakan bahawa seorang lelaki dari Khurasan telah berkata : "Aku telah beberapa kali mendengar     suara datang dalam mimpiku yang berbunyi : "Jika seorang yang berani dari Bani Marwan dilantik menjadi Khalifah, maka berilah baiah kepadanya kerana dia adalah pemimpin yang adil"." Lalu aku menanti-nanti sehinggalah Umar b. Abdul Aziz menjadi Khalifah, akupun mendapatkannya dan memberi baiah kepadanya".

        4) Qais bin Jabir berkata : "Perbandingan Umar b Abdul Aziz di sisi Bani Ummaiyyah seperti orang yang beriman di kalangan keluarga Firaun"

        5) Hassan al-Qishab telah berkata :"Aku melihat serigala diternak bersama dengan sekumpulan kambing di zaman Khalifah Umar Ibnu Aziz"

        6) Umar b Asid telah berkata :"Demi Allah, Umar Ibnu Aziz tidak meninggal dunia sehingga datang seorang  lelaki dengan harta yang bertimbun dan lelaki tersebut berkata kepada orang ramai :"Ambillah hartaku ini sebanyak mana yang kamu mahu". Tetapi tiada yang mahu menerimanya (kerana semua sudah kaya) dan sesungguhnya Umar telah menjadikan rakyatnya kaya-raya"

        7) 'Atha' telah berkata : "Umar Abdul Aziz mengumpulkan para fuqaha' setiap malam. Mereka saling ingat memperingati di antara  satu sama lain tentang mati dan hari qiamat, kemudian mereka sama-sama menangis kerana takut kepada azab Allah seolah-olah ada jenayah di antara mereka." 

       

Umar Ibnu Aziz Sebagai Khalifah

Beliau dilantik menjadi Khalifah stelah kematian sepupunya, Khalifah Sulaiman atas wasiat khalifah tersebut. Setelah mengambilalih tampuk pemerintahan, beliau telah mengubah beberapa perkara yang lebih mirip kepada sistem fuedal. Di antara perubahan awal yang dilakukannya ialah :

            1) menghapuskan cacian terhadap Saidina Ali b Abu Thalib dan keluarganya yang disebut dalam khutbah-khutbah Jumaat dan digantikan dengan beberapa potongan ayat suci al-Quran

            2) merampas kembali harta-harta yang disalahgunakan oleh keluarga Khalifah dan mengembalikannya ke Baitulmal

            3) memecat pegawai-pegawai yang tidak cekap, menyalahgunakan kuasa dan pegawai yang tidak layak yang dilantik atas pengaruh keluarga Khalifah

            4) menghapuskan pegawai peribadi bagi Khalifah sebagaimana yang diamalkan oleh Khalifah terdahulu. Ini membolehkan    beliau bebas bergaul dengan rakyat jelata tanpa sekatan tidak seperti khalifah dahulu yang mempunyai pengawal peribadi dan askar-askar yang mengawal istana yang menyebabkan rakyat sukar berjumpa.

Selain daripada itu, beliau amat mengambilberat tentang kebajikan rakyat miskin di mana beliau juga telah menaikkan gaji buruh sehingga ada yang menyamai gaji pegawai kerajaan.

Beliau juga amat menitikberatkan penghayatan agama di kalangan rakyatnya yang telah lalai dengan kemewahan dunia. Khalifah umar telah memerintahkan umatnya mendirikan solat secara berjammah dan masjid-masjid dijadikan tempat untuk mempelajari hukum Allah sebegaimana yang berlaku di zaman Rasulullah SAW dan para Khulafa'  Ar-Rasyidin. Baginda turut mengarahkan Muhammad b Abu Bakar Al-Hazni di Mekah agar mengumpul dan menyusun hadith-hadith Raulullah SAW.

Dalam bidang ilmu pula, beliau telah mengarahkan cendikawan Islam supaya menterjemahkan buku-buku kedoktoran dan pelbagai bidang ilmu dari bahasa Greek, Latin dan Siryani ke dalam bahasa Arab supaya senang dipelajari oleh umat Islam.

Dalam mengukuhkan lagi dakwah Islamiyah, beliau telah menghantar 10 orang pakar hukum Islam ke Afrika Utara serta menghantar beberapa orang pendakwah kepada raja-raja India, Turki dan Barbar di Afrika Utara untuk mengajak mereka kepada Islam. Di samping itu juga beliau telah menghapuskan bayaran Jizyah yang dikenakan ke atas orang yang bukan Islam dengan harapan ramai yang akan memeluk Islam.

Khalifah Umar b Abdul Aziz yang terkenal dengan keadilannya telah menjadikan keadilan sebagai keutamaan pemerintahannya. Beliau mahu semua rakyat dilayan sama adil tidak mengira keturunan dan pangkat supaya keadilan dapat berjalan dengan sempurna. Keadilan yang beliau perjuangan adalah menyamai keadilan di zaman datuknya, Khalifah Umar Al-Khatab ! yang sememangnya dinanti-nantikan oleh rakyat yang selalu ditindas oleh pembesar yang angkuh dan zalim sebelumnya.....

Beliau akhirnya menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir setelah memerintah selama 2 tahun 5 bulan

2 tahun 5 bulan satu tempoh yang terlalu pendek bagi sebuah pemerintahan....

Tetapi Khalifah Umar b Abdul Aziz telah membuktikan sebaliknya. Dalam tempoh tersebut, kerajaan Umaiyyah semakin kuat tiada pemberontakan dalaman, kurang berlaku penyelewengan, rakyat mendapat layanan yang sewajarnya dan menjadi kaya-raya hinggakan Baitulmal penuh dengan harta zakat kerana tiada lagi orang yang mahu menerima zakat...........kebanyakannya sudah kaya ataupun sekurang-kurangnya boleh berdikari sendiri..

Semua ini adalah jasa Khalifah Umar b Abdul Aziz yang sangat masyhur, adil dan warak yang wajar menjadi contoh kepada  pemerintahan  zaman moden ini....hanya   852 hari dapat mengubah sistem pemerintahan ke arah pemerintahan yang diredahi Allah dan menjadi contoh sepanjang zaman..satu rekod yang sukar diikuti oleh orang lain melainkan ornag yang benar-benar ikhlas.....!!!